An autonomous research institute under the Ministry of Finance


Gender Budgeting as PFM in OECD Countries: Empirical Evidence from Sweden

Publication date

Aug, 2019


NIPFP Working Paper No. 277


Lekha Chakraborty


One of the most significant changes in the labour markets of OECD countries – especially Sweden - over the past decades has been the reduction in the gender gaps in tertiary education and earnings, and the increasing female labour force participation rates. This paper analyses how Sweden has endeavored to reduce the gender gaps in labour markets and other socio-economic gender disparities using gender budgeting as a tool of accountability. The analysis revealed that despite progress made by Sweden in improving gender equality, there is still gender gap in a few areas. The empirical evidence suggests that Sweden follows a “dual approach” in gender budgeting within the Public Financial Management (PFM) practices. While “gender mainstreaming” within PFM is an essential tool for the ex-post budget analysis through a “gender lens”, Sweden has realized that it must be combined with “ex-ante gender assessments” to frame specifically targeted budgetary allocations for tackling gender equality. This Swedish dual approach of gender budgeting within the PFM is a comprehensive model for gender budgeting within the OECD countries. A systematic evolution of “gender neutral” parental leave policy has also been a significant policy ingredient in Sweden towards increasing the work force participation of women. 
Key words: Public Financial Management, Gender Budgeting, OECD
JEL Classification Codes: E62, J16, H30
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